Arnold Hague's … HX 229 was also eastbound and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. Kriegsmarine tactics against convoys employed multiple-submarine wolfpack tactics in nearly simultaneous surface attacks at night. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. Luther had recently joined the group and this was only his second crossing. SC 122, with 42 remaining ships, arrived later the same day. However, they had failed to interrupt the North Atlantic convoy route to any extent; 68 ships (two-thirds of those involved) made a safe and timely arrival, and the 38 ships of HX 229A, which had been detached at New York to cross separately, arrived unscathed. HX 72 was an east-bound convoy of 43 ships which sailed from Halifax on 9 September 1940 bound for Liverpool and carrying war materials.. The battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 occurred during March 1943 in the Battle of the Atlantic, and was the largest convoy battle of World War II.British merchant shipping was formed into convoys for protection against German submarine attack. This record (browse from here by hierarchy or by reference) Catalogue description Convoy number HX 229(A) from Halifax (later New York) to UK. The winter of 1942–43 saw the largest number of submarines deployed to the mid-Atlantic before comprehensive anti-submarine aircraft patrols could be extended into that area. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. The Allied Cipher Number 3 used by the convoy escorts had been broken by the Germans. Martin Middlebrook's Convoy is a classic in the Battle of Atlantic. 13 ships sunk (93,502 tons) and 3 ships damaged (20,687 tons). A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. The convoy pressed on, changing escorts on 13 March off Cape Race. HX 229's escort suffered a blow as HMS Mansfield was forced to detach during the night of 17/18 March. ISBN 1 85367 352 8; Paul Kemp : U-Boats Destroyed ( 1997) ISBN 1 85409 515 3; External links. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? (This was during the period when SC convoys were switched from Sydney, Cape Breton, to New York; this was reversed later due to congestion problems there.) The convoys continued east. March 1943 marked the low point of Allied fortunes in the Atlantic campaign. A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. The ocean escort was B4 Escort Group from St John's, of four destroyers and a corvette. One of these was attacked by a destroyer but again without success. Quite the same Wikipedia. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. means the ship was damaged. In the first twenty days of March, 1943, the Germans sank ninety-seven Allied merchant ships – twice the rate of replacement. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. The U-Boat tracking room at the Admiralty Operational Intelligence Centre was therefore unable to divert convoys around the U-Boat packs. Approximate convoy routes are shown in a red line. Related content. Attacked in March 1943, this action, which converged with the action around SC 122, was the largest convoy battle of the Atlantic campaign. Ordering and viewing options This record has not been digitised and cannot be downloaded. British merchant shipping was formed into convoys for protection against German submarine attack. Three ships were sunk and another five on the morning of 17 March, a total of eight in just 8 hours. [2] Kriegsmarine tactics against convoys employed multiple-submarine wolfpack tactics in nearly simultaneous surface attacks at night. It sailed on 5 March 1943, protected at first by one destroyer and five corvettes of the Western Local Escort Force. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. Additional notes by Arnold Hague and co-workers for convoy HX.229A: WLE(S) 24.18.4 SOE USS COWIE, WLE(N) 24.18.1 SOE ST CLAIR, OCEAN 40EG SOE ABERDEEN, ICELAND ESCORT USS BIBB: NOTE REINFORCED WLE(S), NORANDA REMAINED WITH WLE(N) FROM WLE(S) & ESCORTED LADY RODNEY FROM 14.3 TO ST JOHN'S NF: ABERDEEN SUFFERED ICE DAMAGE 19.3.43 : COMMODORE: Capt D A … HX 229 was also joined by the corvette HMS Abelia, detached from another convoy. SC 122 was also able to resist further attacks until evening. HX 212 suffered the heaviest loss of any HX convoy in 1942. Meet The Squander Bug. * U-boats that fired torpedo or used the deck gun. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on the 14th and the local escort departed. You can order records in advance to be ready for you when you visit Kew. At the north-eastern end of Stürmer's rake, German submarine U-338 had sighted SC 122 heading east, about 120 miles from HX 229's position. [1] In March 1943 convoys HX 229 and SC 122 were the focus of the largest convoy battle of the war. A westerly gale gave speed to SC 122, which passed through Raubgrafs patrol area on the morning of 15 March just 24 hours before the patrol line was formed. British merchant shipping was formed into convoys for protection against German submarine attack. Raubgraf - Convoy HX 229. Convoy HX 229. A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. Legend We have a picture of this vessel.(d.) Arriving on 18 March, Day, as a senior and more experienced officer, took command of B4 Group for the rest of the engagement. This allowed them to position wolf packs in the way of HX 229, which was following a similar course. CONVOY HX 229 Departed New York City on March 8-1943 and arrived Liverpool on the 23rd. The Convoy: 60 ships: First sighting: On 10 Mar 1943 by U-336: Escorts: The British escort group A3 consisting of the British destroyers Harvester (Cdr Tait) and Escapade, the Polish destroyers Garland and Burza, the British corvettes Narcissus and Orchis and the Free French corvettes Aconit, Renoncule and Roselys. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. When the offensive renewed in May, it saw a major defeat for the U-boat Arm, and the turning point of the campaign. He combines a statistical, chronological history with excellent mixture of oral histories of the participants of the event. Taking a more northerly route than HX 229, the convoy remained undetected by German patrol lines and made a safe and timely landfall on 26 March. One U-boat had been lost with all hands, though a number had been damaged. During the same … The Raubgraf operation in mid-March of HX 229 and SC 122, "the greatest success yet achieved against a convoy," was probably assisted in large part by a compromised diversion dispatch, sent in the world-wide table of combined cipher. Often, a convoy is organized with armed protection. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. HX 229 was also eastbound, and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. It was led on this occasion by Commander GJ Luther of HMS Volunteer, as its regular leader was in dock for repairs. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. HX Convoys From September 1939 until September 1942, the HX series carried traffic from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool. A Royal Navy report later concluded "It appeared possible that we should not be able to regard convoy as an effective system of defence".[5]. (Described at item level). The double battle had involved 90 merchant ships and 16 escort ships (though not all were present at the same time). This resulted in the British code breakers being starved of the cribs necessary to break "Shark", the cipher used by the German U-Boats. A fifth, Fort Cedar Lake, was damaged, to be sunk later in the day. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. As an Amazon Associate uboat.net earns a commission from qualifying purchases. 77 convoys on route HX were hit by U-boats in the war. HX 229 at … That's it. Arnold Hague : The Allied Convoy System 1939-1945 (2000). Convoy: The Battle for Convoys SC.122 and HX.229 by Middlebrook, Martin at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 0140046135 - ISBN 13: 9780140046137 - Penguin - 1978 - Softcover A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. Convoys HX 229/SC 122 order of battle This is the order of battle during the battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 from 16 to 20 March 1943. The month saw four home-bound convoys attacked, and a total of 39 ships sunk; yet of those four convoys over 200 arrived safely, while four other eastbound convoys were unharmed. Subsequent to September 1942, and until the end of the war, this series departed from New York. The escort was reported to be weak, as 2 ships had dropped out to pick up survivors. HX 229 Convoy HX 229 departed New York on 8 March 1943 and arrived at Liverpool on 23. Departed New York City on March 9-1943 and arrived Liverpool on the 26th. In the first twenty days of March, 1943, the Germans sank ninety-seven Allied merchant ships twice the rate of replacement. The local escort groups met on 23 March, and HX 229, with 27 ships surviving, arrived at Liverpool on 23 March. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. This comprised six sloop-type warships under Cdr. HX 229A sailed on 9 March, meeting its ocean escort, 40 Escort Group, on 15 March. The North Atlantic winters offered the longest periods of darkness to conceal surfaced submarine operations. Kriegsmarine tactics against convoys employed multiple-submarine wolfpack tactics in nearly simultaneous surface attacks at night. Just better. A further 34 ships which should have been included were delayed due to congestion at New York; they sailed the following day as HX 229A. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the Germans came close to cutting the North Atlantic lifeline. During the night of 18/19 March the two convoys were running in tandem, though sailing independently. On the morning of 16 March U-653, which had detached from Raubgraf to return to base with mechanical problems, sighted HX 229 heading east and sent a sighting report. HMS Highlander joined that afternoon, a welcome addition as B4 was by this time reduced to five ships. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}50°38′00″N 34°46′00″W / 50.6333°N 34.7667°W / 50.6333; -34.7667, Convoy during naval battles of the Second World War, "Volume III German Naval Communications Intelligence, Chapter 4, Section 2", "Volume III German Naval Communications Intelligence, Chapter 4, Section 4", "LLOYD'S REGISTER, NAVIRES A VAPEUR ET A MOTEURS", http://uboat.net/ops/convoys/convoys.php?convoy=HX-229, http://uboat.net/ops/convoys/convoys.php?convoy=SC-122, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Convoys_HX_229/SC_122&oldid=991423089, Naval battles of World War II involving Canada, Naval battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, d/c by aircraft x4; forced to break off and return to base, d/c Liberator /86 Sqdn (17th); dc, damage by, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 00:10. The convoy, made up of contingents from Halifax, Sydney and Bermuda was led by Commodore HH Rogers RNR in Tregarthen. One ship from HX 229 was lost, a romper which broke away to proceed independently; this ship, Matthew Luckenbach, ran into the melée around SC 122 and was torpedoed, to be sunk later on 19 March. HX 229. ADM 199/2189 - Convoy Lists. HX 229 was also eastbound, and sailed from New York on 8 March, with 40 ships and the local escort. Convoy HX 229. These two convoys were the … None of the eight westbound convoys in March were attacked. Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. On 6 March, off Cape Cod, two ships put back to New York due to heavy weather, and on 8 March, another six abandoned the crossing, and put into Halifax. Dönitz immediately ordered Raubgraf to pursue and intercept, while Stürmer and Dränger were ordered west to form a line ahead of the convoy. Title: Robber Baron (Convoy HX-229) Historical: Yes (Search Convoy HX-229) Date: March, 18 1943, 19:00 Wolfpack (Gruppe): Raubgraf Location: North Atlantic. It was led on this occasion by Commander GJ L… The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. As it was, there was a period during the winter of 1942-43 when the… convoy hx 229 1943. convoy sc 122 1943. Background. In total, 38 U-boats had taken part (though throughout the battle not all had been in contact). Had the convoy link between North America and Britain been broken, the course of World War II would have been different. The first couple of days were uneventful but on the morning of March 16th, U-653 sighted HX 229, and sent a sighting report to U-boat Command. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 . They were east-bound convoys and originated in Halifax, Nova Scotia from where they sailed to ports in the United Kingdom. Patrolling aircraft restricted the ability of submarines to converge on convoys during daylight. Read more about them. Convoys HX 229/SC 122 order of battle From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the … The ocean escort was B4 Escort Group from St John's, of four destroyers and a corvette. It was led on this occasion by Commander GJ L… These were dispatched on the morning of 18 March, and arrived the following day. This was the largest convoy battle of the Atlantic campaign. After sending a sighting report she attacked, sinking four ships in quick succession. On the afternoon of 18 March, U-221 succeeded in sinking two ships of HX 229 but further losses were avoided. More than 300 merchant seaman died. This unpleasant-looking character is called the Squander Bug, and it was created during the Second World War by artist Phillip Boydell, an employee of the National Savings Committee. Ships hit from convoy HX-229 77 convoys on route HX were hit by U-boats in the war. During March, there was a series of fierce convoy battles which became, for the Allies, the crisis point of the whole campaign. Buy Convoy: The Battle For Convoys Sc.122 And Hx.229 First Edition by Martin Middlebrook (ISBN: 9780713909272) from Amazon's Book Store. Convoy escorted by B-4 Group CDR ECL Day RN. A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. There were no further losses to the convoys that day; faced with stiffening resistance and sensing nothing further would be achieved without disproportionate losses, Dönitz called off the assault. Arrayed against them were three patrol lines (rakes) of U-boats:[6]. HX 229, a fast convoy totalling 38 ships, departed three days later. X-ray (11,682 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article An X-ray, or X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. During the night of 17/18 March the attack on both convoys, now just 70 miles apart, continued. To install click the Add extension button. [4] A Royal Navy report later concluded "The Germans never came so near to disrupting communications between the New World and the Old as in the first 20 days of March 1943".[5]. Raubgraf caught up with HX 229 on the evening of 16 March and mounted an attack that night. In the first twenty days of March, 1943, the Germans sank ninety-seven Allied merchant ships twice the rate of replacement. The first few days of the convoy were uneventful; HX 229 met its Mid-Ocean Escort Force on 14 March and the local escort departed. Admiral Karl Dönitz, commanding the U-Boat fleet, directed Raubgraf to intercept, forming a new rake to the west. They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. The ocean escort was B4 Escort Group from St John's, of four destroyers and a corvette. HX-228 Homeward from Halifax (North Atlantic) 10 Mar 1943 - 12 Mar 1943. SC 122 was a slow eastbound convoy of 60 ships, routed from New York to Liverpool. During the rest of the day, boats from Stürmer began to arrive. Read more about them. J Dalison in HMS Aberdeen. Together, they contain nearly 100 merchant ships. Help was on its way in the form of the destroyer HMS Highlander, under Commander ECL Day. U-338 sank the freighter Granville, of SC 122 in the evening, surviving a fierce counter-attack by escorts, and after midnight U-305 sank two more ships (Port Auckland and Zouave). ‎"Winston Churchill wrote, The only thing that ever really frightened me during the war was the U-boat peril. All attacks on both convoys were repelled this night, and six firm contacts were attacked but little damage was inflicted. At this time, convoys SC.122 (slow) and HX.229 (fast) set out from New York, with a third HX.229A split off due to the sheer number of freighters and tankers: 141 ships carrying 920,000 tons of vital cargo (fuel, meat and other food, timber, minerals, steel, gunpowder, lorries, locomotives, invasion barges, aircraft, tanks...) and 1,000 passengers.

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